JPRS 74432 23 October 1979

USSR Report


No. 898



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REPORT | | 1. REPORT NO 2. 3. Recipient's Accession No | JPRS 74432 4. Title onc Subdtitic en S. Report Date USSR REPORT: RESOURCES, No. 898 23 October 1979 7. Author(s) 6. Performing Organ:zetion Rept Neo 9. Perterming Orgs nization Name and Address 10. Project/Task/Work Unit No “any Joint Publications Research Service 1000 North Glebe Road 11. Contrect(C) or Grant(G) Wo. Arlington, Virginia 22201 (c) (G) ——

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electric power and power equipment.

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Natural Resources Electric Power Energy

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JPRS 74432 23 October 1979



Merits of Charvakskaya GES Enumerated (A. Sadykov, V. Skrebnev; PRAVDA, 1 Sep 79) eeeeeeeeveeee 1

Alternate Energy Sources Reviewed (M. Bakirov; VYSHKA, 12 Sep 79) eeeeeeoeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 3

Progress on Nichnekamskaya GES (A. Kirillov; KRASNAYA ZVEZDA, 20 Aug 79) eeeeeeeveaeeeaeee 6

Work on Rovenskaya AES Proceeds Smoothly (I. Pashchuk; RABOCHAYA GAZETA, 28 Aug 79) ceccccoccceces 9

Electrical Equipment Minister on Next Five-Year Plan (A. Antonov; SOTSIALISTICHESKAYA INDUSTRIYA, 24 Aug 79) . 12

antonov on Electric Equipment Industry (A. Antonov; IZVESTIYA, 20 Sep 79) eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 17

Benefits and Problems of Dmestr River GES (Ss. a TRUD, 15 Sep 79) eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeaee 23

Antonov on llth Five-Year Plan (A. K. Antonov; EKONOMICHESKAYA GAZETA, Sep 79) eeeeeeeee 25

CEMA Cooperation in the Field of nergy (V. Begishev; PRAVDA UKRAINY, 15 Aug 79) eeeeeeeeseeeeeee 27

Briefs Tuvinskaya ASSR Electrification Transmission-Line Tower Construction Nizhnekamskaya GES Power Lines in Dagestan


-a- [III - USSR - 37]

CONTENTS (Continued)

Surgutskaya GRES

Maryyskaya GRES Installation of Raovenskaya Reactor


Gas Regions, Producing and Predicted, Rated by Network Scheduling (Yu. I. Maksimov; IZVESTIYA SIBIRSKOGO OTDELENIYA AKADEMII NAUK SSSR. SERIYA OBSHCHESTVENNYKH NAUK,


Advanced Extraction Equipment Lacking at Uzen' Oilfield (V. Timonin; PRAVDA, 18 Sep 79) eeeeeeeeveeev ee ee ee eee


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Moscow PRAVDA in Russian 1 Sep 79 p 3

{Article by Academician A. Sadykov, president of the Uzbek SSR Acacemy of Sciences and V. Skrebnev, chairman - the Uzbek SSR Gosetroy: “In the Mountain Spurs of Tien Shan”

.Text. The Charvakskaya GES, conceived and built as a unique hydrotechnical installation, is playing a great role in the solution of a number of our entire republic's important economic protlems. The commissioning of this highly efficient hydrotech- nical installation opens the means for improving the supply of water to 460,000 hectares of irrigated land and for bringing 150,000 hectares of new land under irrigation. The seasonal reculation of the river Chirchik's flow and the creation of a two-billion cubic meter reservoir as part of a hydraulic develop- ment for improving irrigation conditions has provided, particu- larly during the previous run of low-water years, a surplus of more than 230,000 tons of cotton wool during those years and has increased the productivity of other crops in Tashkentskaya Oblast.

At its refulated output of 600,000 kilowatts, the GES in one year senerates two billion kilowatt-hours of electric power, the

cost of which is five to six times less than the cost

such large-scale thermal electric stations as the Tashkent

and Syrdar’ in stations, which operate on fuel oil.

Operational practice has proven the high efficiency of the Char- vakskaya complex. 6y 1978 all capital investments in the con- struction of the GES had been completely recouped.

The Charvakskaya G&S reflects the latest achievements of the scientific-technical thought of Soviet hydroelectric power spe- cialists. This hydraulic development in the Tien Shan mountain spurs is one of the examples of construction art.

The hydraulic development's dam, 168 meters high wit!l a crest approximately a kilometer long, is in an area of geologically complex mountain formations having force-eight seismic activity. In world-wide hydroenergetics it is the first dam to be built uSing local materials. The derarture from classical concrete construction has made possible the total elimination of expendi- tures for an entire complex of concrete plants and sifting ma- chines, and has permitted the acquisition of the corresponding equipment. The dam turned out to be 35 to 40 percent less expen- Sive and its construction time was cut by three years. A complex of desig, scientific and experimental operations (ircluding those done on a specially constructed test range) has made pos- sible the selection of the optimal methods of preparation and tampins of loamy soil and rocky material, ensuring the dam's solidity and water-tightmess.

The e“rectiveness of capital investments rose significantly thanks to “ne early engagement of the GES‘s urits at reducec pressures while the dam was still under construction. The SZS output was subsequently stepped up to its desigmed power.

The hydraulic development’s structures were outfitted with a great many pieces of specially designed equipment, the creation of which is of greet scientific and technical value.

The results of complex experiments carried out in the summer of 197% when the reservoir was filled and all of tne GES's struc- tures anc equipment were brought up to design pressures, regula- tions and parameters have once again affirmed the hizh quality of construction and installation work and the reliability of the scientific-technical decisions adopted.

n efficiency and complexity, reliability and durability, and the modern level of technical progress and aestheticc--that’'s wnat characterizes this hydraulic development.

In November of 1977 Comrade L.I. Brezhnev, general secretary of


the CPSU Central Committee and chairman of the Presidium of the 'SSR Supreme Soviet, warmly congratulated all the participants in the development’s construction, noting their selfless labor. The creation and assimilation of the Charvakskiy hydraulic

ievelopment hus on its merits been nominated to competition for

tne USSR State Prize.

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730: 1622



Article by M. Bakirov, manager of the radiation research sec- tor of the Azerbaijan SSR Academy of Sciences and doctor of physical and mathematical sciences: “The Treasures of Radiant Enerry™ |

[Text] The goal that’s been set before our specialists is the extraction and utilization of so-called natural ener:;y in the economy. The situation taking shape in world energetics affirms the importance of the course that has been taken. I'm sure that solar and wind energy have a great future. What's been said here pertains especially to our republic, where the nighest possible number of sumny and windy days are recorded in the course of the year. One of the advantages of these types of energy is that they don’t pollute the environment. You will agree that this is a factor of no little importance. Thus, experiments in our sec- tor have already been conducted on several makes of automobiles that run on a new hydrogen fuel, obtained throuch the use of ener- ey from the sun and wind. Hydrogen gives away nothing to raso- line, and instead of the harmful exhaust gases, ordinary water

is released. True, the cost of the new fuel is high for the time beinrs, but it will, without a doubt, fall in the future. Ina word, the prospects are enticing. Today in our sector, wind- powered electric and photoelectric hydrogen installations have already been developed which allow the extraction of hydroren

by the electrolysis of water. We've also constructed a solar electrotechnical installation for implementing a thermochemical process of obtaining acetylene; its main subassemblies have been manufactured and installed.

jle’ve completed’ the installation <f an applied solar ener plant for obtaining a fuel mixture through the eel ariel decomposition of water. The plant's principle of operation is also based on the use of solar rays. Under the influence of heat from the latter, ordinary water, at the moment it passes

through a special transformer, is broken down and converted into a fuel mixture.

We scientis:s have beer. highly excited about a recen~ resolution of the CPSU Central Committee and the USSR Council of Ministers "On the Improvement of Planning and the Strenrthenine of the Eco- nomic Machinery’s Influence on the Rise in Production Efficiency and the Quality of Work”. In it, once again, the role of the achievements of science and technology in increasing the efficien- cy of the entire economic system is emphasized, and attention is devoted to the accelerated realization of scientific-technical discoveries and developments that are directed at increasing the rate of growth of efficient public labor and the quality of pro- duction. The successful realization of these tasks to no small degree depends also upon the efficiency of our labor.

On the other hand, the resolution makes it incumbent upon the ministries, departmente and businesses to render more active assistance to science. You know how it goes sometimes. You con- fer with the productior workers, you convince them o* the advan- tages of this same solar energy installation or, let's say, of hydrogen fuel. You get the feeling that the person you're talk- ing to interprets what you've said as fantasy: he becomes wary, Dlays it safe, indicates some higher authority. Hell say that permissic mn will have to come from above. The new resolution of the CFSU Central Committee and the USSR Council of Ministers aims to make the executives arm themselves more boldly with the achievements of scientific-technical progress, and to see the prospects for developing our sector and direct their efforts to- wari attaining the ultimate results.

At this present stage, not only the individual scientist but even a scientific colllective is unable to effectively solve more or less large-scale scientific problems acting alone. Our sector of radiation research maintains close ties with many scientific in titutions within the republic and in the country. Thus, under the Academy of Sciences’ system our sector coordinates the work sroblems of semiconductor physics and hydrogen energetics with institutes of physics, chemical processes and sp.ce research into natural resources.

“orether with the Institute of Chemical Physics of the USSR Acad-

emy of Sclences we are conducting research into the radiation de-

composition of water with the aim of obtaining hydroven. The laboratory of ferroelectric materials maintains communications

witn a number of scientific research establishments in foreign suitries concerning the study of problems of the structure of tielectric and electric properties of ferroelectric materials

wid their practical utilization.

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h.oscow KRASNAYA ZVEZDA in Russian 20 Aug 79 p 2

Article by A. Kirillov, doctor of technical sciences: “The Pourth in Cascade”

Text. It was recently reported in our paper thei the first of the hizhnekamskaya GES's generating units | been brought into service. Adopting prorressive methods cf cc tion, hydro-


electric technicians ‘installed it tn four monthe.

“hy has this fact attracted attention? First of all, it is be- cause the construction of the Nizhnexamskaya GES completes the reation of a hydroelectric complex on the Kama. The first node in th ascade is located near Perm’, the second rises close to ity of Chaykovskiy, and the third is alonsside the city of tkinesk. Alonrside the new center of automobile construction

n tr ‘ity of Naberezhnyye Chelny the fourth step of the cascade, th izhnekamexaya SES, has begun supplying current. One more ter Ass been taken toward completinsc the tasks of the 10th PFive- Year ilan, the prorrams of which envisioned brincine the produc- Of fF electrical power up to 1.34 to 1.3% billion kilowatt-hours immy of two million soviet electrical workers steadfastly re- ives the tasks set before the rarty and the ,overnnment. n fccember of last year, for example, the unique hydroa;r;regate at ti sayaro-Shushernsxaya GES, which has a power output of 9,000 ¥ilowatt-nours, was the first to provide industrial cur- inead of schedule. A160 put into service were the larre- rle hydroelectric a ‘ervates at the Nurekskaya, Irticurskaya and ya .*3Ses. The production of electrical ererry in our coun- in the last year reached 1.20 billion kilowatt-hours, which, th 1975, constitutes a 15.7 percent increase. In

mparison wi irst half of the present year 621 billion kilowatt-hours of trical enerry have been produced.


The technical level of electrical power engineering has iilso been raised and the economic indicators of the economic activity of energy systems and electrical power stations have been improved. Thus, the unit expenditure of fuel per kilowatt-hour has decreas- ed by more than eight grams, which will ensure a savings of 15 million tons of conventional fuel within the limits of our sec- tor. The efficiency of fuel utilizaion achieved is in keeping with the goals of the Five-Year Plan.

The Nizhnekamskaya GES will also make its contribution in the struggle for economy and for improving the production of elec- trical energy. The combined output of its 16 power units will total 1.25 million kilowatts. The GES will produce 2.7 billion kilowatt-hours of electrical energy per year, which will permit

a yearly savings of 1.2 million tons of conventional fuel and will free the 5,200 persons whose labor would be required to pro- duce the same amount of electrical energy at a thermal station.

In 1979 power engineers and power station builders have been as- Signed strenuous goals concerning the rates of growth of effi- cient labor, decreases in the unit costs for the production of electrical energy, industrial goods, construction and installa- tion works and other planning indicators. Along with the machine builders, they are also confronted with achieving an improvement in the technical-economic characteristics of the equipment. How- ever, there is a good example of such work in the field already. This was the reconstruction not long ago of the hydrogenerators at the Bratskaya GES, as a result of which the output of the elec- tric station increased by 400,000 kilowatts.

In the course of building projects and operating and maintaining equipment, any possible reduction in that portion of work ac- complished by low-productive manual labor is also of great sig- nificance. Incidentally, this requirement was considered in a practical manner during the construction of the Nizhnekamskaya GES. In its units new technical solutions were employed which Significantly accelerated the speed of construction, allowed a reduction of labor expenditures and permitted an increase in the work quality.

For example, during the installation of the GES building, such designs were used for the floodgate slots as would make possible the achievement of higher precision and exclude the labor-consum- ing concrete-mold work which was unavoidable with the previous method. Exhaust tubes of complex geometric form are cast in con- crete, uSing standard prefabricated elements, which sharply re- duce* labor consumption and the time needed for this work. The installation of the equipment make wide use of reinforced ele- ments, etc.

The acceleraticn of scientific-technical progress in electric power production and an increase in the qualitative indicatcrs

of economic activity are inseparably linked with the further im- provement of the work of scientific-research and desig organi- zations. In our sector special significance is attached to the strengthening of close ties between these organizations and pro- duction, and the concentration of attention on the main trends in technical progress. Today the collectives of the electric power stations, businesses, construction, installation and maintenance organizations, and the scientific-research and desig institutes of the USSR Minergo direct their efforts to the solution of these and other tasks.



LArticle by RABOCHAYA GAZETA correspondent I. Pashchuk: “The Closer to the Finish..." ]

[Text] In the office of V.B. Sukhonosenko, party committee sec- retary for a key republic Komsomol construction project, is a network schedule of the construction and installation work at the Rovenskaya AES.

“In one year,” he ran the pointer along a rising line, “the face of the construction platform has changed so much as to be un- recognizable: new parts of the building complex have sprung up which now are already fitted out with equipment. The construc- tion and installation plan, according to the chief general con- tractor, is committed to completion by Power Specialists’ Day.

In addition, we will bring it in at 400,000 rubles under bud- get.”

At the construction site they speak highly of "“Yuzhteploenergo- montazh", a harmonious collective in the installation sector.

It completed 130 percent of the plan for the second quarter, and 108 percent of the plan for the first half of the year. The thermal equipment fitters installed more than one hundred pieces of equipment, erected re gr taco systems and a deaerator for the first turbine, laid 640 tons of piping, completely enclosed the high and low-pressure cylinders, and installed the generator stator. Now they are successfully carrying out work on the num- ber-two turbine: ahead of schedule they are installing the tech- nical equipment, the pipelines and the junctions on the main circular contour in the reactor compartment.

"It's easy to work with such people," says E.T. Shevchenko, chief engineer at the Kharkov turbine plant, who is supervising the installation of the turbines. “We'll manage it within the speci- fied time."

Such an attitude is commendable. However, ever. the related en- terprises end suppliers must maintain the rapid pace. You know thet delays in providing equipment still occur, and that it hap- pens at building sites still under construction, which slows down the installation. The Pecherskoe administration, for ex- ample, held up the delivery of oil-pipeline flanges, equipment needed for oil coolers.

In order to install the turbine pipelines it's necessary to

nut together multileveled horizontal and vertical systems of scaffolding, but not out of just anything. The construction ad- ministration of an atomic power plant can't get by without sup- Dlies of wood materials, and the lack of wood has already begun to slow up the installation crews.

dater cooling tower number one is being built alons the draft

fan pipe. This unit is not ordinary in purpose or in dimen- Sions. The water cooling tower rises 150 meters overhead--almost twice as high as those in operation today. The unit will cool 100,000 cubic meters of water per hour, water necessary for the operation of the first power unit.

"We're sticking to the set pace," says Z.G. Gamrixeli, chief en- Sineer for construction management. “Every two days we raise the collar one and a half meters, and we've gone up a total of 104 meters."

The work of the “Energovysotspetsstroy” high-steel men is re- sponsible. They work essentially on wooden boards alone, along both sides of which is empty space. The thickness of the cool- ing tower is only 210 mm, which means that it's necessary to fasten the metal casing with absolute precision so that sagging doesn't occur. Examples of this selfless labor are provided by fitters V. Leventsev and 0. Sukhonov, crane operators L. Ryabov and A. Pagoda and cement truck drivers 0. Zhuvak, S. Leus and others.

The fitters busy in the reactor compartment do not lag behind

their neighbors. The work is organized into three shifts. The ace is brisk.

"We're installing the internal structural frames for the cover- ing," says }..T. Tkachenko, team leader for the "“Yuzhenergomon- tazh" section. "They deliver materials in accordance with the orders without delays. There's almost no loss of work time."

But things aren't like this at all the construction sites. The

pace has slackened on the construction of the unified auxiliary framework.

“We're 50 or 60 workers short of the number we'd need to stay on schedule,” said V.G. Paseka, head of construction manage- ment sector number three. “Deliveries of necessary equipment, sucn as oxygen cylinders, is frequently hampered...”

Those in arrears to the atomic power plant builders are: the Svetlovodskiy, Dneprodzerzhinskiy and Pridneprovskiy reinforced concrete products plants, the Kiev plant for experimental con- struction, the Kukharovskiy boiler equipment plant aid the Bag- leyskiy auxiliary doiler equipment and pipeline plant. For the first half of the year they are in arrears 1,929 cubic meters of reinforced concrete and 1,786 tons of metal structural material.

In spite of the temporary difficulties, the builders are working at full output. This guarantees that by the end of the year the Plant will put out its first kilowatt-hours of electric power.




(Article by A. Antonov, minister of the USSR Electrical Equipment In- dustry: “New Technology - The Way to Economy” |

Text] For a number of years now a distinctly elaborated system of economizing material resources has been in effect in the elec- trotechnical industry. It has absorbed several trends. These are: the mastery and dissemination of new forms of production with reduced material consumption, the introduction of progres- sive technological processes, the perfection of methcds of estab- lishing norms and the storage and stock-taking of everything which must go into production. The final goal is that all growth in the volume of production output is ensured without drawings substantially upon basic materials - rolled metal, to begin with.

Just what is the result? This is what the analysis shows: in the Five-Year Plan specific quotas for the expenditure of rol- led ferrous metals in the sector were reduced by 21.6 percent; in the current Plan, they will decrease by another 16.2 percent, but even with this, for each single percent in growth of the consump- tion of rolled metal there will be an increase in production 1.3 times greater than that in the 9th Five-Year Plan. From 1975 to 1979 the output volume of electrotechnical products has grown by more than a quarter, while the consumption of rolled ferrous metals has grown only by nine percent, copper by three percent and lead by five. As early as the beginning of the 10th Five- Year Plan workers in the sector saved 252,000 tons of steel and 20,009 tons of copper, lead, etc. A great deal of other mater- ials, fuel and electrical energy was saved.

In the next, the iith Five-Year Plan, conserved metal will acquire even greater significance in the fulfilment of State plans. In comparison with the 10th Five-Year Plan, our sec- tor will almost have to double the production output for each percent increase in the consumption of rolled ferrous metals in


the years 1981-1985. Their unit cost is planned to decrease another 26.5 percent. This is one of our basic, knotty prob- lems, toward the solution of which efforts are being directed all aiong the line of “science-technology-production".

The major portion of the savings can be achieved thanks to the creation and mastery of new products that demand less material. For this a system of measures has been worked out: there has been introduced, for example, an ecoromic stimulation of scientific research and experimental design work, organized according to

its real effectiveness; the procedure for conducting the exami- nation of material consumption indicators has been reculated in all technical jobs, without exception; a system of dynamic cost analysis is being introduced which allows the most economical desim and technological solutions, etc., to be brought to light.

Let us consider another thing: in many cases a reduction in the weight of power machinery doesn't result in an ultimate eco- nomic effect. Everything has a scientifically founded limit. dhern we've reached it, we cause an unavoidabie reduction in its characteristics, the coefficient of useful power and other para- meters of the product. On the other hand, for example, such products as switching equipment for high-voeltare electrical power lines, which are material-consumptive for industry, present the consumer with great savings in material and maintenance expendi- tures. Consequently, scientific, planning and design organiza- tions are enterprises which, in their activities, are obligated to orient themselves toward the ultimate economic result, which goes beyond the limits of the sector. This is why under the heading of “economy” we include the increased reliability and du- rability of the product, as well as the creation of specialized desims adapted to specific conditions of operation. Asynchro- nous motors in special agricultural equipment will serve as an example, for they endure extremely severe conditions of operation under the high moisture and dustiness of the environment.

One of our important trends is the incorporation (in desigms and technology) of essentially new solutions. ‘io such work can be attributed the research that's connected with the use of elec- tronic methods in self-contained electrotechnical installations, the creation of equipment for plasma and electron beam tech- nolorsry, etc. Significant results can be expected from measures taken to introduce low-waste technology into production.

Particularly efficient have been standardized articles of mass Nnroduction. For example, the creation of a standardized series of asynchronous motors has made it possible not only to sig- nificantly raise their technical level but also to improve the product list: the number of rarely-used modifications has been


sharply curtailed and universal desigms with increased range

of application have been mastered. As a result, the introduc- tion of a technically advanced series has brougsht a simificant Savines of metal and other materials: at practically the same level of rolled metal consumption the output of motors in the past 4-5 years has been increased 1.4 times.

Such work is now being conducted today on all types of massive electrical equipmert.

The savings of material (to a significant degree) depends upon our customers. Thus, questions about the correct use of electri- cal equipment also come to the fore. Violations of established norms and the incorrect selection of products for some conditions or others unavoidably leads to the premature wear of tne equip- ment, incomplete utilization of its problemsolving cepacity and, consequently, to the appearance of artificially overestimated de- MAN .

Towerad the goal of a more stringent system of material savings our Ministry consicers it expedient to establish a procedure in which the consumer of electrical equipment must coordinate the Selection with the developers or other competent representatives and organizations of the electrotechnical industry. The time has come also for a review of a number of GOSTs (State standards) on requirements for the operation of electrical equipmer.t. The euarantee of concord between State interests in the area of mate- rial savings and the interests of each of the consumers of our products is being borne in mind. Such concord can only be achiev- ed on the basis of a painstaking analysis of the conditions under which our equipment will be used. This work is already being con- ducted, and its scope will be broadened. What we're talking about sere, in the final analysis, is the creation of an integral and *le» ible system of direct two-way communication between producers and consumers of electrotechnical equipment.

Today, approaching the end of the i0th Five-Year Plan, we are ever. now drafting plans for the next period. In addition, we

irre devoting great attention to the formation of a work program linked with the careful use of materials. Because of it we are oeing suided by the index of economy as if it was one of the basic indicators that determine the efficiency of our sector of indus- try. The leading organizations have already expressed their con- siderations, and they are now being brought together into a com- nosite from which the tasks for all subunits in the years 1981-85 vill be determined.

In order to accelerate the introduction of new products which “uarantee a sigificant reduction in the expenditure of material in ovr sector itself and for the consumer, economic methods will be employed wnich have been defined in the resolutior of the CPSU Central Committee and the USSR Council of Ministers “On the Im- provement of Planning and the Strengthening of the Economic Ma- chinery’s Influence on the Rise of Production Efficiency and the Quality of Work". However, in our opinion, the maximal effect (meaning the savines of material) car be ensured only when the methods of computing the evaluating indicators which character. e the savines of materials acl ieved in the sector are clarified and revised in a corresponding tanner. The working instructions of the Ceatral Statistical Directorate do not take into account those savings from the iniroduction of new technolory with re- duced unit material consumption, increased period of service, im- proved working conditions, etc.

The min'st ry has many times addressed the USSR Central Statistical Administra- tion and the USSR Gosplan with proposals to improve them, however’, the question is vet to be decided, and an important part of a practicably attainable effect (thanks to the introduction of new technolory) remains “beyond the bounds of accountability”.

Approximately one-half of the total volume of savinzs is sup- posed to be attained thanks to the application of new materials, the substitution of those raw materials in short supply, and also because of the transition to progressive techno Logical pro- cesses. Here it must be said that the problem of deiivering suca materials for the electrotechnical industry has yet to be decid- ed. Jt is for these materials that we have an acute requirement. Until now the sectors were alloted limited funds for substitutes and cast plastic, the application of which would allow fora sharp reduction in the expenditure of rolled ferrous metals. We also receive an insufficient volume of electrotechnical-grade steel of high quality. Why, the lack of proper materials holds up even the introduction of prosressive technological processes. Because the ferrous and nonferrous enterprises do not deliver high-precision perforated shaped stock or powdered iron or cop- per, we are unable to save tens of thousands of tons of rolled ferrous and nonferrous metals. Rolled metal of dimensions which differ ereatly from those which were ordered still find their way into the sector's enterprises. This leads to sreat losses. In 1978 these losses made up about 15,000 tons. This is only that portion of the loss that can be expressed in numbers with sufficient certainty.

Isn‘t it true that we have the accumulated experience of an ef- ficient collaboration of specialists in various sectors? This

is, however, only one example. A new class of electr« technical- vrade steel and the new technology to produce co) d-rclled unal- loyed isctropic steel with high magnetic properties have been de- veloped ty engineers of the ferrous metallurgy and electrotech- nical industry. Its application instead of that of hot-rolled sheet steel in the manufacture of mass-produced foods in only three years of the Five-Year Plan permitted a savings of about

70 tons of rolled steel. At the same time, heavy manual labor was eliminated. In accordance with the provisions of the rece;.i resolution of the CPSU Central Committee and the USSR Council of Ministers our ministry will actively participate in collaboration with sector affiliates in complex prorrams for th< creation of essentially new materials and replacement products for the elec- trotechnical industry. The system of combined intersector over- all programs has already proven its effectiveness. Aimed at

Saving materials, it will undoubtedly produce even weightier re- Sults.



Article by A. Antonov, minister of the USSR electric equip- ment industry: “The ‘Small-Scale’ Electric Equipment Industry” |]

\Text] I wish to begin with a fact that relates to the history of our erergsy productions along with the GOELRC

plan, the de legates to the 8th All-Russia Congress of

Soviets were handed a list on which were schematically arranred the major directions for electrification. One of the arrows pointed to Living quarters.

The creation and assimilation of home appliances is an integral part of the party's multifaceted social program, directed at imrrovineg the individual's way of life and standard of livin:. \ substantial contribution to the solution to this tas is pro- vided by the electrical equipment industry. Our appliances, which have solidly entered people’s day-to-day lives--washins;s machines, vaccuum cleaners, fans, irons, lamnos and many other

items--have been called upon to make housewor* easier and to bates the level of comfort in the home. Today the selection of items from the so-called small-scale electrical equipment in- ductry exceeds 15C0 items. Approximately one-third of the nation- al outnut of domestic equipment goes to enterprises within the sector.

Recently, the electrical equipment industry has mastered the production of and introduced into the market such modern products necessary for the home as automatic washing machines, home air conditioners, portable vaccuum cleaners, various items for person- al hysiene and self-service appliances. These are products of very complex technology. Their creation and assimilation re- quires the same arsenal of resources that larre-scale electro- technology demands. Qualified cadres of researchers and develop- ers are needed, and it is necessary to fit enterprises with

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the latest technological equinment and to introduce noderm methods of organizing production. t is precisely for this creation of technology for the home that leadirg scientific research and experimental desig orzcanizations in the sector and 300 enterprises have been enlisted.

Much more remains to be done in order to make the outward appearance, ease of operation and durable consumer cualities of electric appliances answer the demands of the Soviet people.

In the Orancn much attention is being devoted to perfecting an over-all system of quality control. All products of home tech- nology are subject to certification. The dissemination of the system of certification and quality control for home appliances has served as a stimulus for raising their level of technolovy: only three years aso the mark of quality was registered on 2 percent of the total production output of such items and today this indicator has reached 42 percent, which corresponds to the level set for the end of the fiveeyear plan.

In no way detracting from the significance of certification as an imvortant stimulus